Everything you think you know about addiction is wrong | Johann Hari
Translator: Hanen Manaa checker: Allam Zedan one of the old memories are two attempts to awaken one of my relatives, but I could not so. I was then a small child, so I did not understand what you happen but when I grew up, I realized that my family suffers from drug addiction. Including subsequent cocaine. I’ve been thinking about it a lot recently, because 100 years ago exactly banned drugs for the first time in the United States and Britain, and then impose it in the rest of the world. A century has passed on our taking this crucial decision regarding booking and punishment of addicts and make them suffer, because we are safe that this Srdahm, and will be an incentive for them to stop their addiction. A few years ago I was looking for some addicts who love them in my life, and I tried to find a way to help them. I realized that there is an incredibly basic questions that did not know the answer, for example, what you exactly how many causes addiction? Why do we continue this way and that they do not seem to work well, is there another way we can try instead? So I read it volumes about how, I did not find the answer that I was looking for, so I thought, well, I’m going to sit with different people around the world who have suffered from this and studied with him and talk to them and see if I could learn from them. I did not realize that I have I’ll cut 30 thousand miles in the beginning, but I ended up going and interview a lot of people, from the mutant drug dealer sexually in Brownsville, Brooklyn, to the world spent much time giving hallucinogens to animals ferret to see if they Ihbunha- have liked, but in very specific circumstances, to the only country which abolished the criminalization of drug use of marijuana to cocaine, which is Portugal. The thing that surprised me very much and I’ve realized is that almost all of what we know about addiction is not true. If we began to absorb the new concept of addiction, then I think we’ll change what is much more than our policy toward drugs. But to start with what we think we know and what I thought I knew. To think about this here, the row in the middle, imagine all of you for 20 days heroin 3 times you use the menu daily. Some seem enthusiastic about this gesture. (Laughter.) Do not worry, this is just a thought experiment. Imagine that you have this, right? what would happen? Now we have a story circulating a century ago of what could happen. We believe that because of the chemical constituents of heroin if you used it for a period of time, your body will need it, Sieol your body on it, and after 20 days will become addicted to heroin, it is true? This is what Atqdth. The first thing that attracted my attention that there is an error in the story when they have me strict moral code. If you have an accident car after the meeting broke sciatic I will convey to the hospital and inject Baldaamorvin, a type of heroin, it is really better than that Ststraeh from the street. Because that you buy from the contaminated promoter contains a small proportion of heroin. While that of the doctor when it is medically pure. It will be given for a long period of time. In this room there is a group of you, you may not realize that they took a large amount of heroin. It can happen to anyone watching this session anywhere in the world. If all what we believe is true about addiction, all of these components of the chemical exposure. What should happen? Must become addicted have been studied this carefully. You will notice that when changed your grandmother’s hip, did not become addicted. (Laughter.) When I learned this, it seemed to me it strange, unlike everything I was told him, and everything I thought I knew I thought it could not be true that I met someone named Bruce Alexander, a professor of psychology Vancouver, which made an amazing experience I think it really helps us understand the problem. Prof. Alexander explained, the story of addiction sticking our heads, that story, partly formed after a series of experiments conducted in advance. It’s really simple experiments. You can do tonight in your home, if you Sadia. Place a rat in a cage and gave him Garortin of water; the first and second water only mixed with heroin or cocaine. If you do this, the mouse will prefer water mixed with drugs, and almost always seek to kill themselves quickly. Thus, then, true? Thus, we believe it is happening. In the seventies, Professor Alexander hopes this experience and noted something. He said ah, if we put the mouse in an empty cage, does not find anything other than taking drugs do. Let’s try something different. So he made a cage “Mouse Park”, which is a committee of the mice. I’ve got loads of cheese, and got loads of colored balls, got a lot of tunnels. More importantly, they got a lot of friends and can mating. It also got pure and mixed with drug water. But the amazing thing is that in the “Mouse Park” do not like drugs mixed with water. Almost did not Icherboh. Not used compulsively. It did not hurt any of them overdose. When the isolated was the incidence of overdose of 100 percent, offset by awakening when Ihzawn happy life. But the first thing that filled his mind after this experience is that they are probably linked to mice only differ for us, maybe not for that we would like them but as Tarafon– Fortunately, they experience the same human circumstances and at the same time and called the Vietnam War. There, 20 percent of the army uses huge amounts of heroin, and if I followed the news reports, they were worried because they thought they got hundreds of thousands of addicts in the streets of America at the end of the war, this was logical. Now, it has been traced Hola addicts even their homes. The General Psychiatry, a detailed study, what happened to them? They did not participate in rehabilitation programs have been shown. They did not go to get rid of it. 95 per cent of them stopped. Now, if you believe the story of Annaasralkemiaiah, this makes no sense at all, but Mr. Alexander began to believe there is a different story about addiction. Where he wondered what if the chemical elements of addiction was not associated? What if it was linked to Bmahatk? What if the addiction is to adapt to your surroundings? In view of this, there was another professor named Peter Cohen, in the Netherlands, who asked that perhaps one should not be called an addiction. Maybe you should call it closely. Humans have an innate nature and the need for the link, and when we are happy and healthy Sntrabott and communicate with each other, but if you can not, because of the psychological trauma or isolation or because life turned her back to you, will try to link something else gives you a sense of satisfaction. Now, it may be gambling, you may have seen pornography, it may be cocaine or cannabis, but Strtbek and continue with something because this is our human nature. This is what we want as human beings. At first, I thought that this is somewhat difficult to accept it my thinking, but only one way helped me, I see it, I have brought a bottle of water from my seat, right? I see a lot of you, and Oktherkm carries with a bottle of water. Forget drugs and drug war. Legally, can all water bottles are vodka, right? It is possible to be drunk – I also after Hma– (laughter) – but we are not. Now that you are able to provide this huge amount of money to join TED lectures you are able to save money to drink vodka for 6 months to come. You will not end up homeless. Not to do so, and the reason not to do so not to exercise of your that no one prevents you from doing so, but because there have relationships and links you want to keep. I’ve got to work that you love and people love them. I’ve got a good relationship. The main part of the addiction, I became thinking and I think that is the inability to assume you are in life. Now, this really has real effects. One of those obvious effects related to the drug war. In Arizona, I came up with a group of women forced to wear a shirt that reads: “I was addicted to drugs”, and they go out in groups with chains and Ihfrn Quborhn, while the general make fun of them, and when these women prison leave, this will be present in the criminal record, which means that they will not be able to work at all. Now, this example is exaggerated in the case of a group chained but in fact everywhere in the world there is the same treatment for addicts and punish them Nhinhm and ascribe to them a criminal record. And put them barriers that prevent them from communicating again. There was a doctor in Canada, Dr. Gabor Mate, a man told me a stunning, as you want to design a system increases the abuse of addiction, will be designed that system. Now, there is a place where he decided to do the contrary, and I went there to find out how it was done. In 2000, Portugal was experiencing one of the worst drug problems in Europe. One percent of the population are addicted to heroin, and this is almost unbelievable. Every year, they were trying American way more and more people were punished and Asamunhm of shame and more humiliating and every year things were getting worse. One day, they united the prime minister and the opposition leader and said, we can not move forward’s north where the number of addicts is increasing on heroin. Let us form a committee of scientists and doctors to find out what he can to solve this problem. He was forming a committee led by a stunning man Dr. Joao Gulaao to look at this new directory, and have returned Afaqaloa “not Tjermoa all drugs from cannabis to cocaine, but” – a step Alhacmh– “Take all the money used to stop addiction and cut communication with them, and they spent instead of so as to re-communicate with the community. ” That’s not really what we think as a treatment for addicts in the United States of America and in Britain. So they are reconstructing housing rehabilitation and psychological treatment, which is of value, but the biggest thing they are doing the exact opposite of what we do: a huge program to create job opportunities for addicts and the allocation of small loans to set up small businesses. So tell them that you are a mechanic. When you’re ready will turn to shop and say to the owner if you accept this young man to run for a year, we will pay half of his wages. The goal in Portugal was to make sure that every addict has something to encourage him to rise from his bed in the morning. When I went and met with addicts in Portugal they are what they said, as they rediscovered the reason and rediscovered ties and relations with society as a whole. This year will have passed 15 years at the beginning of the experiment, and the results are: injection drug use in Portugal has seen a decline of 50%, according to the British Journal of Criminology. Taking excessive doses have seen a decline, a lower incidence of AIDS among addicts. Decline in the phenomenon of addiction, according to all studies. One of the ways that show the success of this process is that no one in Portugal wants to return to the old system. Now these are the political implications. In fact, I think that there is a range of effects of all this research is that. We live in a culture where people feel very vulnerable to any kind of addiction, whether to their smart phones, shopping or eating. –qubl start these talks, you know all Hma– let us know that he was not entitled to carry us smart with us our phones, and I must say that many of you felt awe as it is for addicts who were told not to provide lawns during the next few hours. (Laughter.) Many of us have felt this, and it may seem strange about telling, I was talking about separation which is the primary engine of addiction, it is strange to say that high, because you think that we are more linked to the community for sure. But I began to think that these links that we have or that we think we possess is just a parody of human relationships. If you are facing a crisis in your life, you inevitably will notice something. Mtaatbaok will not come on Twitter to sit with you, and will not help your friends on Facebook, but it will be the real friends of the family were present, and who connects you with their close relationship and face-to-face. A study I learned from Bill Mkibn, the writer community, which I think it tells us a lot about this. The study examines the US average number of relatives, friends who can count on them during the crisis, this number has seen a significant decline from the fifties of the last century. Witnessing the amount of floor space per person in his home up on a continuous basis, and I think it can be considered as a metaphor for the choice of culture. Friends replaced area of floors and things relations, the result is that we have become one of the most societies unit. Bruce Alexander, who tested the mouse park, said most of the time talking about addiction for individual recovery, and the right to talk about it, but we need to talk more about community recovery. Speeches What about us all of us as a group event, and not everyone individually and we have created a society where life seems for the majority and minority Kagafs Kmtenze mice. If you’re frank, this experience I’d never for this reason. I did not want to discover the political things or social, but to know how to help from loved them and when I return from this long journey I have learned all this looked for addicts family, and you if you really frank, it’s hard to love addict, and a lot of you know it, you will become angry most of the time, and I think one of the reasons for the fact that this discourse is charged directly entering the heart of the true? When each of us looks at the addict and think about this, he says in the same I wish I could stop you. The scenarios that tell us about how to deal with the addicts I think it embodied such a realistic program “intervention” If you have Hahdtoh. I think everything in our life is linked Baltelovesh, but this is another conversation for TED. If you have seen “intervention” program, it is a small and simple introduction. Hat any addict, and the whole was reunited with all the people in his life, and then what they do Facing and they are saying and threatened to cut off ties to him if not improved. If what they are doing is to communicate with the addict, and threatened him make it conditional on the behavior of the addict according to their desire. I started to think and consider why the methodology did not work, and I began to think that this is similar to the introduction of the logic of the drug war in our own lives. So I thought how can I be a Portuguese? I tried to what I do now, and I can not tell you that I am always and I can tell you that this is easy to say for addicts who are in my life I want to more solid relationship with them, to tell them I love you, whether you are addicted or not. I love you, whatever the case where you are, if you require me will come and sit with you because I love you and I want you to be lonely or feel lonely. I believe that the essence of this message – you are not alone and we love you – must be the answer for all addicts, socially, politically and individually. Hundreds of years ago and we sing songs about the drug war. But I think it was worthwhile to sing love songs to them, because it is the opposite of addiction is not equilibrium. Reverse addiction is to communicate. thank you. (clap).
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